Turn on the television this time of year, and you can guarantee that it won’t be long before Ebenezer Scrooge appears on the screen. He is cold natured and miserly, with no charitable bones in his body. He shuns Christmas celebrations and prefers his own company. In the story ‘A Christmas Carol’, his intransigence seems absolute – he is thoroughly mean. It becomes clear at an early stage that if Scrooge is to learn a different approach to life, it will take much effort and he will not do it alone.
As the respective ghosts visit him, they operate as catalysts for change. In many respects, they act like mentors. One exception to this is that a mentoring relationship is usually a mutual one, where both parties agree to work together in a climate of trust and respect. However, by the time the Ghost of Christmas Future arrives, Scrooge is much more willing to engage and accept guidance from his ‘mentor’.
Change is an outcome of learning. For Scrooge, nothing would change if his ‘mentors’ do not engage his emotions first of all. The Ghost of Christmas Past begins by reminding Scrooge of deep-seated, repressed emotions linked to his childhood and earlier adulthood. Scrooge tries to fight against re-connecting with the painful memories. But this re-connection seems to be essential for Scrooge to see the need for change.
Mentoring is frequently portrayed as a role most people can do, with a little help and training. The benefits of being a mentor usually outweigh any drawbacks, but there can be risks, especially when deep-seated beliefs and feelings are involved. Mentees may not always want to adapt in a certain way, or address difficult emotional issues, to make real progress. Mentors have to respect this of course, but it can get messy without clear boundaries. Mentors also can be confronted with their own difficult feelings about their past when helping someone.
If we accept that digging up the past was an essential first step in Scrooge’s learning journey, the next stage is where Scrooge learns to ‘see’ what is happening around him. He can no longer shut himself off from others, and is suddenly painfully aware of the misery for which he is partly responsible. Learning to view the present through a new lens is another step towards change. When training for professional roles, this lens can take the form of principles of practice (e.g. client confidentiality) or theoretical frameworks (e.g. social construction of ageing, or materials science). A mentor can support their mentee to understand how these lenses relate to their own situation.
At this point, Scrooge recognises the need for change and starts to find new ways of seeing the world. Now, he needs a mentor more than ever to help him overcome his inertia. The Ghost of Christmas Future achieves this by showing him what a sad, lonely death Scrooge would have if he didn’t change. Seeing into this dark future is the tipping point. With the help of the three ghosts, Scrooge is able to work out what he needs to do. In any mentoring relationship, the mentee must be able to take the guidance and decide on their own path.
Scrooge’s dramatic transformation is symbolic of the kind of outcomes mentoring can achieve. Few would be so extreme, but nevertheless A Christmas Carol provides us with a vehicle for understanding a little more about how a timely intervention can make all the difference.
I remember hearing a woman interviewed on the radio a few years ago. She was claiming income support (welfare) and lamented that she was unable to attend job interviews because she was allergic to shoes. This was at a time when the press were vilifying any unemployed people who appeared ‘undeserving’ of welfare payments. In the prevailing mood, it was difficult to accept the foot condition as a valid excuse.
At the time, even though I had already succumbed to severe hand eczema, foot eczema was just an abstract idea, something for my imagination. I felt thankful it was only on my hands, bad as that was. But I did develop eczema on my feet, and it was only a matter of months after that radio interview. And it turned out, I had become allergic to my shoes.
It was bad. The itching was intense. Tense blisters appeared, making it impossible to put shoes on. I had to sleep with my feet hanging over the edge of the mattress, as I couldn’t stand even the weight of my feet on the bed. I was thankful that I was able to work at home for several days, as it was impossible for me to leave the house.
Sole of foot
Eventually, I had some patch testing. It revealed that I was allergic to two rubber accelerator chemicals (vulcanisers), which commonly occur in the rubber found in the soles of shoes. I still remember studying the vulcanisation (creating a polymer) of rubber in A level chemistry. These substances can also be found in the adhesives used in joining leather. As shoes become worn in and are exposed to moisture, the chemicals leach out and come in contact with the skin. Step number one – know your enemy!
Translating chemical names into which shoes you can wear is something else entirely. Shoes don’t come labelled conveniently with things such as ‘contains thiuram chemicals’ or ‘contains carbamates’. The dermatology advice was to ‘wear all-leather shoes with no inner sole (like moccasins), plastic shoes or wooden clogs. If you have difficulty acquiring shoes without rubber insoles, remove the insoles before wearing and replace with those cut from piano felt, cork, or plastic.’ Try going into a shoe shop and asking what their insoles are made of! Try removing the insoles from women’s shoes. As I suspected that simply sweating was also a likely factor in my eczema, I was keen to avoid plastic shoes too. The advice was also to discard old socks, as they can harbour the harmful chemicals.
I bought some wooden clogs online, and discarded all my socks. Hobbling around with my sore, bare feet (not yet able to go sock shopping) in wooden clogs, I began my campaign to find wearable shoes.
I contacted Satra Technology, a company based in Kettering, UK, known as a ‘leading technical authority for footwear and leather’. They advised me on alternatives to leather or plastic soles. Interestingly, thermoplastic rubber (TR) and crepe are not vulcanised, so they were safe. Also, I could look out for polyvinyl chloride (PVC), polyurethane (PU) and ethylene vinyl acetate (EVA) soles. Try going into a shoe shop and asking what their soles are made of.
Some shoe retailers were more helpful than others. I was very relieved to find that my recently acquired Trespass walking boots could get the thumbs up – the only rubber component was the outer sole – the midsole and insoles were fine. I discovered that many shoe manufacturers source the leathers and various components from all over the world. It was almost impossible for them to vouch for the exact materials used, especially the glues. Even craft shoemakers relied on glues/cements to keep their leathers in line.
The only assurance I could obtain on leather adhesives was with Gore Tex. Clarks informed me that glues were not used in joining the uppers and linings of Gore Tex shoes. I was also very thankful when I found Easy Wellies, who made it extremely easy to search their stock for PVC boots and garden shoes.
I eventually had to give up on asking about the cements in leather shoes. My life was slipping away week by week, with one manufacturer after the other unable to give assurances on this. I was becoming tired of existing in PVC wellies and wooden clogs (and my hefty walking boots). Step number 2 – avoiding the enemy – was proving very hard.
These days, my first stop for shoes is Hotter. Many, but not all, of their styles use polyurethane for soling. Yes! Quite a few of their styles contain elastic (made with rubber?), so I avoid those. Their customer services department is very helpful and will bend over backwards to research the various materials in their shoes. I buy their leather shoes on the understanding that one day I might have a reaction to the leather cement, although apparently they use it sparingly. I just try not to sweat.
I started writing this article when ageing was again in the news, this time in connection with shift workers. We have mounting evidence that working night shifts can accelerate ageing and decrease longevity. But what is ageing exactly? And can we protect ourselves against it?
Although we can see and experience getting old as a process of ‘slowing down’, becoming forgetful, and the accumulation of skin wrinkles and grey hair, it takes study at the cellular level to appreciate what is actually happening. Studying the internal workings of cells reveals unimaginable complexity and the inevitability of the ageing process. We will be hard pushed to come up with any elixir for longevity.
‘Longevity’ simply means a long life. The longest life on record is that of a French woman Jeanne-Louise Calment (1875-1997) who lived to nearly 123 years old. The biological world describes longevity as a phenotype – a set of observable characteristics of an individual resulting from the interaction of their genes with the environment. You might ask, then, how is the interaction between genes and environment affecting our longevity and causing us to age?
Our genes are strung together on chromosomes inside each of our body’s cells. Humans have 46 chromosomes in each cell. During growth and renewal, certain cells divide to produce new cells. A lifetime average is 10 million cell divisions every second. The genetic code perpetuates by processes of chromosome replication, followed by orderly separation of the duplicates in the creation of a new cell. We tend to think that each cell division faithfully reproduces and passes on the genetic blueprint, but this is far from true.
Take aneuploidy, for example. Chromosome separation sometimes goes wrong during cell division. The result of this is that some new cells may have more than or less than 46 chromosomes. Cells can usually limp along in these cases, but they have lost their vitality – in other words, they show signs of ageing.
Mutations are probably the genetic errors with which we are most familiar. Simply put, they are random changes occurring in the genetic code within a chromosome affecting a single gene or a larger piece of the chromosome.
Another mechanism involved in cellular ageing is telomere shortening. Telomeres are specialised pieces of DNA that cap the ends of all chromosomes. Without a telomere, the integrity of a chromosome is severely threatened. This may result in the chromosome ends forming loops by joining together, and serious difficulty in replicating at all. Critically, each time a cell divides, the chromosomes naturally lose a fragment of telomere – they progressively shorten until they eventually reach the end of the line.
Epigenetics is a fascinating topic involving the study of gene expression. Certain structures within a cell are able to ‘switch’ genes on and off. Epigenetic mechanisms are what makes different body tissues do their specialised jobs – all our body cells contain the same genes, but only some are turned on. In a chromosome, proteins known as histones form packaging material that helps to condense over 2 metres of DNA to fit into the nucleus of each of our cells. Subtle changes in these histones can interfere with their control of gene expression.
The effects of all this interference with the expression of the genetic code in our cells accumulate over time. The structure and function of the molecules that maintain the cell deteriorate with ageing, leading to a decline in the function of the cell. As the number of declining cells increases, so our bodies age more. This fits Edward Masoro’s classic definition of ageing as deterioration with advancing age, which increases vulnerability to biological challenges and hinders an individual’s ability to survive. This interpretation of ageing is also known as senescence.
Returning to the night-shift workers, the point is made that sleep is essential for enabling our body systems to replenish themselves. Upsetting normal wake-sleep patterns seems to trigger harmful processes – perhaps we do not handle sugar, stress, or appetite quite so well, for example. Toxins might not be cleared up quite as efficiently as normal.
Whether or not we work shifts, our bodies are continually mopping up harmful chemicals and dealing with the effects of bombardment by solar and other background radiation. Harmful chemicals can be external pollutants or by-products of metabolism. The more we can do to maintain our bodies in a healthy state, the better equipped we are to fend off these threats. In the long run, though, it seems we have little defence against advancing senescence.
I’ve always had a problem with the term ‘e-learning’. Learning doesn’t take place electronically, but in people and communities of practice.
There are many different words and phrases bandied about these days to describe 21st Century modes of teaching and learning. Here are some: e-learning, blended learning, technology enhanced learning, flipped classroom, social learning, mobile learning, gamification, cloud based learning, synchronous classroom, distance learning, agile learning, rhizomatic learning.
Experts attempt to differentiate between and define these various terms, which overlap considerably. I can’t help thinking they all sound very clever, very technical, and slightly mysterious. Certainly, they have their proponents and trailblazers who desperately want others to ‘get it’, adopt the approach and join in the conversation about how it can benefit and transform learning. This all helps to build communities of practice and gather evidence of effectiveness.
Underneath all the buzzwords, there is the tricky concept of LEARNING. Learning is very difficult to pin down. On my bookshelf I have a book edited by Knud Illeris, a Danish professor of lifelong learning, who has gathered contemporary accounts of 16 influential learning theorists. It is a fascinating and inspirational read. But having read it, I still sense that learning itself remains mysterious. Learning is not a spectator sport – you cannot ‘see’ learning happen, although you can witness what emerges the other side of the ‘learning black box’. And you can study the learning context in order to understand how to help people learn.
Behind the inventive terminology and fascinating theories, I can identify five common threads for a successful learning context.
Provide access to information
Promote interaction between the source of information and the learner
Create space for personal reflection and discussion with other learners
Allow learners to test out their newly acquired knowledge/skills and to obtain feedback
Provide learners with means of sensing progress and achievement
Here are some ways these five threads are woven into contemporary education.
Provide access to information
Get people into a physical or online (synchronous or asynchronous) classroom and a teacher talks. The talking could be augmented by demonstrating a skill, technique, or practice situation. In an online or face-to-face classroom, the demonstration could be delivered as a pre-recorded video.
Supply reading material or a reading list. Formats for reading materials can be print or to suit a range of electronic devices. Some devices are more portable than others. Electronic delivery allows flexibility in meeting the needs of some learners with sensory impairment and learning disabilities – e.g. changing font size and colour, allowing audio conversion.
Help learners gain the skills to find appropriate information – e.g. in libraries and on the World Wide Web.
In a workplace, allow learners to immerse themselves in the community of practice, observe others, supply them with a buddy or mentor, provide access to libraries and internal documents.
Promote interaction between the source of information and the learner
Help learners to make notes, actively interrogate content, organise their thoughts and responses in light of the information. They are not ‘just reading’, or ‘just listening’, or ‘just watching’ – engagement with the information has to be active. Gamification is a very engaging technique for promoting such interaction. In classroom situations, learners commonly achieve active interrogation and organising their thoughts by asking the teacher questions.
Help learners to question their information sources. Teach them the skills to judge the provenance, trustworthiness, and so on, of sources.
In a workplace, cultivate a climate of trust. Train mentors and buddies to adopt a facilitative, non-judgemental attitude to questions.
Create space for personal reflection and discussion with other learners
Create break-out groups in lectures – either virtual or face-to-face. Online classrooms also have the facility for messaging, emoticons and voting buttons – and voting buttons are also available in some lecture halls. Online forums are widespread, a very useful tool for running discussions. Blogging is also becoming increasingly popular for reflection and discussion.
Provide prompt questions for reflection. Online, questions can be made interactive so that a learner’s response influences the next question posed.
A flipped classroom involves learners accessing the information they need before entering the classroom. This frees up the classroom time for extensive group work and reflection. This is a common model used in distance learning with tutor support.
In a workplace, a useful approach is to facilitate learners to form networks or learning sets for reflection, discussion and peer support – ‘social learning‘ springs to mind here.
Allow learners to test out their newly acquired knowledge/skills and to obtain feedback
In academic learning, this testing out commonly occurs in formal or informal written assignments.
Peer feedback can also be solicited in group work and discussions via a range of electronic media as well as old-fashioned face-to-face.
In practice situations, trying things out and obtaining feedback could be almost continuous. If mentors and supervisors accept mistakes as part of the learning process rather than a source of shame, discussion opens up and learning is more likely.
Provide learners with means of sensing progress and achievement
Set meaningful and tangible learning outcomes and objectives.
Design assessment tasks carefully.
Regular quizzes (in any format) can be fun and motivating.
Ensure any feedback is carefully formulated to encourage.
Emphasise the value of any qualifications to be gained.
I may have missed something out. Can anyone add anything?
One of the most persistent challenges that tutors and workplace mentors face, is how to get learners to respond appropriately to feedback. So often, it seems that the student hasn’t been paying sufficient attention. Repeated enough times, this experience can lead to desperation in which tutors start to sound like a broken record, relaying the same message over and over again, and mentors begin to doubt whether the student is really up to the task. This can easily lead to exasperation and disillusionment for learning facilitators.
But before you give up on any learner or beat yourself up as a failure, consider whether there are any alternative approaches. Always remember that feedback has to be given AND received.
1. Tell them something they want to hear
No, it’s not a cop-out! But if you want someone to hear you, they need to be receptive. It’s easy if your learner is a real star who you can’t praise enough. Praise for performance can soon feel hollow if it doesn’t fit the situation. Here are some alternative openings your learner might want to hear:
You clearly have a passion for [the subject/work]
Your personal experience and insights about [the subject/work] really shine through
I’m really pleased you managed to submit this work by the deadline, as this shows good time management skills.
Just think how far you have come since [the first essay/you first arrived]!
I always look forward to [receiving your work/working with you]
I was very relieved when your assignment appeared, as I know how difficult things have been for you
It is rewarding for me to see the journey you are on.
I’m amazed at how resourceful you are.
Your resilience/perseverance is impressive!
In other words, the learner may be struggling but you still appreciate them as a person.
2. Focus on observable behaviours
Focusing on observable behaviours avoids falling into the trap of making unwelcome personal comments. You might be thinking that that your student is not really interested in helping the clients. If you tell them this, the defences go up, and any further communication will be hampered. Instead, share exactly what you have seen and heard. The learner stood or sat with folded arms. They missed an opportunity to intervene when a more experienced member of staff would have dived in without thinking. These are then opportunities to talk about body language or to teach ‘helping’ techniques.
When students repeatedly make the same mistakes in their written work, it is easy to believe that they are ignoring your feedback. But writing well is hard. Try unpicking the issue. Is it grammar, style, structure, showing understanding, using the appropriate content, using evidence? You might think that correcting grammar is simple, but it can be the hardest thing to do. And grammar mistakes often originate from a poor grasp of the topic or the message. Students who struggle with sentence construction are also struggling to express themselves at all as they grapple with new ideas.
Look for clues in the writing and find alternative ways of helping. Such as:
You used a lot of colloquial/informal language, which made your essay seem less persuasive and less objective
It was sometimes difficult for me to follow your discussion, as you were trying to say too many things at once.
3. Don’t accuse your learner of not putting the time in
Your learner’s work might appear scrappy, rushed and sloppy. But the chances are, this person has sacrificed their family and social life to study or develop a new career. You will instantly alienate your protégé by suggesting they are not doing enough work (even if this is true).
4. Make clear suggestions for moving forward
This may be obvious, but it’s difficult to do well. The learner who is holding back in the workplace may be lacking confidence and/or skills. Find out which it is and help them to address the issue. Draw on the observable behaviours in your discussions and invite the learner to impart the less observable. How are they feeling? Perhaps there is a clash of values or attitudes that needs unpacking. Whatever it is, make sure you can make concrete suggestions – small things like ‘try smiling more’, or bigger things such as shadowing a more experienced colleague or practising one skill until it is mastered.
Moving forward with written work, again try matching your suggestions with your observations:
Try to adopt a more formal writing style, by bringing in more of the specialist language and the concepts discussed in the course
At the planning stage, have a go at writing one phrase that sums up what each paragraph is about. Does the order of your main points seem about right? If not, change it.
5. Listen. Listen. Listen.
I’ve left this most important one until last. Remind yourself that feedback communication is a two-way process. Find out what your learner is thinking and feeling. Check their understanding of the topics or skills they are learning, as well as the feedback they have received. Ask them for their own ideas of how you can help them learn.
Here, I consider some of the strategies employed by students on a daily and weekly basis to maximise the value and impact of their limited study time. I discuss the manageability of distance study for these students. Above all, their resourcefulness and sheer determination were most impressive.
Engaging with the learners
Recently, over a two-month period, I enlisted the help of a small sample of distance-learning students studying an introductory health and social care module. I wanted to assess their experiences of studying. How do they engage with the materials, how do they manage their time, and what strategies do they resort to when time is short?
Most research asking these types of questions of distance learners tends to collect the data at the end of a study period, and I was interested in developing methods that would allow educators to gather useful data during study. This immediately throws up issues of time shortage. It is difficult to defend asking time-poor students to devote even more time in relation to their studies.
I anticipated that few of our entry-level students of health and social care would find the time or energy to maintain a study diary. Many of them were combining their studies with child-care responsibilities and full or part-time work. And as it turned out, only a very small proportion of the student cohort actually replied to my request for volunteers.
I invited my volunteers to choose from a menu of methods for recording their study experiences and behaviours as often as required, but once a week minimum.
Receive a regular call from me, in an agreed time slot
Call an automated phone line to record a message
Make a short voice or video recording on a smartphone, tablet or pc and upload it to a secure website
Keep a written log of study experiences and send it to me
Of the seven volunteers, five chose to send weekly written diaries by email, and two elected for a weekly phone call. To my surprise, none chose to make audio or video diaries. I had previously believed that recording their voices would offer welcome relief from writing. But in fact they decided, probably rightly, that messing around with the technology would consume much more time than writing things down or simply speaking to me at a pre-arranged time.
Time and pace
Time and pace were fundamental concerns. The participants all found it a challenge to make time for study. This was a standard approach to time management: ‘I have been trying to do an hour of study every night when I have finished work and doing as much as I possibly can at the weekend.’ These good intentions could easily melt away, however, when other priorities crowded in.
Guilt commonly cropped up: ‘I’ve had some annual leave and have been trying to enjoy time off and do those annoying bits around flat which I’ve been putting off. Felt a bit guilty about putting the essay off.’ When one of the participants did use his holiday for study, he still came up against competing demands on time after his return: ‘Found it harder this week as I’m back at work and need to study other things for my work too’.
By contrast, experiencing a sense of speed could be invigorating – for example, one student triumphantly ‘flew through the last unit’ after consistently worrying about falling behind. Rewards were important, and for this student the reward was the ‘fun’ of speeding through number skills activities after grappling with copious reading and writing. The thrill and relief of receiving a good assignment mark also energised these students.
More often, the students tried to find active strategies to increase their pace through the module. This would sometimes backfire: ‘I have skimmed Block 3 in bed over the past fortnight, just concentrating on pages which I think are relevant to the essay. But I sat down last night to write the essay and soon realised I simply don’t understand the material well enough to do it. I’m having to go back through it in a linear way today so I can make another attempt.’
Those with dyslexia found the large amount of reading to be the greatest challenge. Alternative visual and audio stimuli could help to maintain momentum and motivation:
‘I’ve started using sticky labels to mark the case studies for future reference. When I make notes, I draw different shapes around each bit. I use highlighters in three different colours: one for the positives or general info; another for challenges or difficulties; the third for the references. I write notes to myself in the margins, which helps to keep me focused. I fall asleep at night listening to the audio book.’
The diarists experienced many life events and study situations that presented obstacles to study. For example, one explained that ‘there was so much going on, it felt everybody wanted a piece of me.’ Furthermore, serious health and personal issues could be real obstacles to successful study: ‘I’m literally hanging on by a thread due to personal circumstances, work, social factors, physical and mental health problems, computer breaking down…’
One participant reflected the experience of many of our students when she described family responsibilities that demanded flexibility in order to maintain study progress: ‘It was half term. I have three young children – we had family trips and attended two weddings, so we did a lot of travelling. I did the DVD activities in the car.’
Motivators for continuing with their studies fitted under three headings: being kind to yourself and finding a balance, seeing the relevance of the new knowledge, and personal strength and determination.
Being kind to yourself:
‘I’ve found myself adopting a ‘that’ll do attitude’ just to get through everything – sometimes you just haven’t got the time to do yourself justice’
‘I’m feeling motivated and tell myself not to be too hard on myself. I’m so tired but getting a good mark in the last assignment refreshed me.’
‘I struggle to get started without doing anything first so on Sunday I went out for the morning and spent the afternoon doing the bulk of the essay’
Seeing the relevance of knowledge gained:
‘The stuff I have learnt has actually came up in topic while chatting with family’
‘I can make personal links with the social model – it helps me to look at things in a different way.’
Personal strength and determination:
‘I’m not the sort of person who would let go – I keep the pressure on.’
‘I keep going because I chose to do this and I want my degree in 3 years. This week I’m going to prove to myself I can rise to the challenge’
‘What has kept me going this week has been sheer determination not to give up.’
What did I learn?
In some ways, I learnt nothing new – I have supported distance learners for well over a decade. But by thinking hard about some of these recurring themes of time, pace, rewards, and obstacles, I am developing new insights. Perhaps we can design in more quick-and-easy quizzes that provide a sense of speed and achievement. We should design formal continuous assessment so that it reflects progress more sensitively than it currently does, saddled as we are with the blunt instrument of learning outcomes. Most of all, we can surely apply our creativity in steering time-poor students along a journey that can fit alongside their often chaotic, busy, and unpredictable lives.
Now that the excitement of the spring and early summer flowers has passed and farmers are well on the way to harvesting their cereal crops, August has a mature feel about it. Dave and I have stopped exploring the hedgerows on foot as other demands have encroached on our time. Therefore, I was delighted to make an excuse to get out there with the Montgomeryshire Field Society this week.
The Montgomeryshire Field Society planned to explore Montgomery Castle and the surrounding countryside this August, as part of its Summer programme 2015. They have surveyed and reported on the flora and fauna in and around Montgomeryshire for over 60 years.
After meeting up in the very pleasant surroundings of Monty’s Brewery Visitor Centre for a picnic lunch (and having a taste of my favourite tipple, Monty’s Sunshine), we set off on a range of walking routes. The ‘birders’ took a route through Lymore park and along Offa’s Dyke (similar to this one), and some others opted to walk in and around the town. I joined the ‘long walk’ that took us past the castle, up to the county war memorial (‘the monument’) and around the fields between Montgomery and the village of Llandyssil.
A little group formed around the edge of the path leading to the monument. They weren’t looking at the brambles or the nettles or the hogweed heavy with seeds. No, they were studying the docks intensely. I have never paid all that much attention to docks before, apart from being thankful that you can usually find them near nettles, and that they do indeed soothe nettle stings. Now suddenly, they were attracting great attention and interest.
There were two species of dock in close vicinity of each other. The first was Wood Dock, Rumex sanguineus. Its latin name is far more descriptive than its English name, as ‘sanguineus’ refers to the blood red sap visible inside the stem, and sometimes in the leaf veins. A quick online search reveals that the Americans call it Bloody Dock and have cultivated varieties of it for their gardens, mainly as a foliage plant. The flowering spikes had turned an attractive red in the plants we looked at.
Rumex sanguineus flower spikes
Close-up showing the beauty of the Dock flowers
I didn’t get a photo of the other dock. This one was Broad-leaved Dock Rumex obtusifolius. This one is much more feared as a weed, as it is slightly poisonous and can harm livestock. The milky sap has a reputation for causing dermatitis. The flowering spikes were much more robust and ‘chunky’ looking.
On we went, stopping to look at plants in the extensive daisy family. Hawksbeards, plume thistles, and sow thistles dominated much of the terrain. One of the plants we identified early on was the Nipplewort Lapsana communis. It is a modest plant that finds it way easily into gardens and can be quite attractive in its own way. Perhaps it gets its name from the somewhat nipple-shaped flower buds, although some sources claim it is effective at healing sore nipples!
Willowherbs also caught our attention. Close inspection of the flowers revealed that they had either a four-lobed stigma or a blunt club-shaped stigma. Using this information and the leaf size and shape and growing habits we identified Broad-leaved willowherb Epilobium montanum, Great willowherb E. hirsutum, Marsh Willowherb E.palustre, and possibly Short-fruited willowherb E. obscurum. We also observed the unmistakable Rosebay willowherb Chamerion angustifolium growing abundantly.
Two other rather impressive plants, both in the daisy family, are worth a mention here. First, the Lesser Burdock Arctium minus. This time of year when the flowers are bursting from their spiky buds, the intense pink can easily stop you in your tracks. Likewise, Wild Teasel Dipsacus fullonum takes on a special beauty as its tiny pale purple flowers create a halo around the unmistakable egg-like flower heads.
Lesser Burdock Arctium minor
The Field Society members, who are very skilled at identifying plants and other wildlife, soon created a long list of species of interest. It was a great sunny day for butterflies. We spotted many Gatekeeper butterflies, and also Common Blue, Meadow Brown, Speckled Wood, Peacock, Painted Lady, and Comma butterflies.
If you are visiting Montgomery in August, there is plenty to observe out and about!